Sampler Global Ariunaa

Global Sociology

What is a globalization? Globalization is not a new concept. It existed even in Marx and Engels era. Karl Marx, described “globalization” in his book, The Communist Manifesto. He says,

The bourgeoisie has through its exploitation of the world market given a cosmopolitan character to production and consumption in every country…. All old established national industries have been destroyed or are daily being destroyed. They are dislodged by new industries, whose introduction becomes a life and death question for all civilized nations, by industries that no longer work up indigenous raw material, but raw material drawn from the remotest zones; industries whose products are consumed, not only at home, but every quarter of the globe. In place of the old wants, satisfied by the production of the country, we find new wants, requiring for their satisfaction the products of distant lands and climes. In place of the old local and national seclusion and self-sufficiency, we have intercourse in every direction, universal interdependence of nations. And as in material, so also in intellectual production. The intellectual creations of individual nations become common property. National one-sidedness and narrow-mindedness become more and more impossible, and from the numerous national and local literatures, there arises a world literature…(Lemert 2010, 618).

Obviously, the word “global” have been around long time. One of the marking event of globalization was, 1957, the Soviet Union “launched their first Sputnik satellite. In the space of historical heartbeat, international borders became more porous with peculiar ramifications” (Campbell 2006, 144). In the early 1990’s, the collapse of the Soviet Union, globalization became more popular world phenomenon.

When I first heard about the term “globalization” I was a student in the National University of Mongolia, in the early 2000’s. That day my professor came in to the class with a very serious face. I sensed he will lecture something important and it was “globalization.” He said that globalization is happening right now and soon there will be no boundaries between the countries and global language is English.

In this paper, i will analyze the main topics that i found from the global sociology theories. I read Manuel Castells’ “The Global Network” (1996), Beck, Ulrich’s “World Risk Society” (1999), Stuart Hall’s “The Global, the Local, and the Return of Ethnicity” (1996), David, Harvey’s “The City in a Globalizing World” (1996), Amartya Sen’s “Asian Values and the West’s Claim to Uniqueness” (1996), and Vaclav Havel’s “The End of the Modern Era” (1992). From these readings I found out that some there is a conflict between the theorists. Some theorists are anti-globalization and some are pro-globalization.

However, I found three main themes, the new technological advancements, new social and political approach and as a result how it is reshaping the native cultures.

First, let’s talk about the new technological advancement is one of the important factors of globalization movement. Manuel Castells and Vaclav Havel expressed opposite view points about the technological advancement. Castell is pro-information technology and Havlev is anti-information technology. “Their examination of the processes of globalization centres around the extent to which technological developments have brought about a change in the way societies, states, cultures and individuals function and understand themselves” (Schirato & Webb 2003, 8).

Both of the theorists explained “globalization” as an interlinked concept between technological
advancement and the global networking. Castell’s main point was the globalization is the system that organized around the network systems. The global networks can transmit through the television, news, computer, internet, cell phones and can set new cultural perspectives. Castell (1996) says,

The inclusion/exclusion in networks, and the architecture of relationships between networks, enacted by light-speed operating information technologies, configurate dominant processes and functions in our society (620).

In other words, today’s society is depending on the relationship between networks which function by high speed information technology such as through the media we can hear the global outbreaks. For example, on September 11 terrorist attacks almost whole world was watching America.

In addition, these interlinking networks are reshaping the global economy. Now, businesses are more competitive and workers are doing more individualized tasks. In the beginning, humans used to control by nature and during industrial revolution human gained control over nature. Now, with this technological development we are living in new information age.

On the other hand, Vaclav Havel suggested that we need a natural revolution and less rely on technological advancement. During Communism the life was organized around one model and it collapsed because it reached its maximum limits as a consequence from the mass technology. We all know that global is in danger such as global warming, global diseases and treat to starting a nuclear war because of this technology. Although humans studied many of these global disasters and collected information it won’t help us to rescue the world because all of these information is unorganized. Now, we are looking for a new technology to solve our previous mistakes. In order to accomplish this task we need to reorganize our lives around universalism and adopt the pluralistic approach.

Next, the new social and political approach occurred as a result of globalization movement. “ One of the important transformation” occurred in the nation state roles. As a result of increasing power in the big multinational corporations many nation state power decreased. For example, Ralph Nader (1998) says,

The essence of globalization is a subordination of human rights, of labor rights, consumer, environmental rights, democracy rights, to the imperatives of global trade and investment. This is world government of the EXXONs by the General Motors, for the DuPonts (Schrato & Webb 2003).

Globalization brought new radical social and political changes all around the world. Beck Ulrich, David Harvey and Edward Said are illustrated this social and political changes around the globe.

First, Beck Ulrich explained the political differences between first and second modern. His main point was in the first modernization we had national boundaries and the nation-state was the only one decision making power. However, it changed in the second modernization. In the second modernization the decision making power is not only the nation-state but also the big transnational corporations. For example, Ulrich (1999) says, “modernity was based on nation-state societies, where social relations, networks, and communities are essentially understood in a territorial sense” and now, our life is organized around the “five interlinked processes: globalization, individualization, gender revolution, underemployment and global risks.”

In addition, Ulrich said that the second modernization is a “reflexive modernization” because its fundamental is the first modernization just like capitalism based on industrialization. The individualization is not individuals, but he meant a structural concept, “institutionalized individualism” such as “welfare state is designed for individuals rather than families” (Ulrich 1999).

Furthermore, he sees the world is in “risk” because of the growing power in the transnational interdependence is a modern form of future colonization. The decision making power in risk society is not only the nation-states but also it involves the big corporations.

Second, David Harvey‘s main topic was the urbanization movement and its impact on reshaping the social and political structures. For example, he said that heavy concentration of people is creating the poverty, pollution, consumerism and crime. Therefore, rich people moving to the suburban and leaving the poor in the urban cities. These social problems are creating the protests in which people “demanding the political-economic changes” and the government is not helping to improve the poor people’s living situation. Instead they are blaming the victims (Harvey 1996).

Although Harvey and Ulrich had the same topic of social and political changes they took different approaches. Ulrich’s wanted people to see the emerging power of transnational corporations and the lessening nation-state power. On the other hand, Harvey wanted to see how urbanization is creating the social problems.

Finally, let’s talk about how globalization is reshaping the native cultures. In a globalization era, people’s cultural context is changing with the help of mass media. People around the world are adopting the dominant cultural traits which mainly influenced by the Western culture such as choosing English as global language. Stuart Hall analyzed globalization impact on cultural identity and put into three categories: “ 1.National identities are being eroded as a result of the growth of cultural homogenization and “the global post-modern. 2. National and other ‘local’ or particularistic identities are being strengthened by the resistance to globalization. 3. National identities are declining but new identities of hybridity are taking their places…” (Hall 1996).

In addition, because of the globalization there is a new identity is emerging in the world. It is a categorizing people based on their sameness such as language, physical characteristics and culturally and divided into two main category, white and non-whites.

Next, Amartya Sen wrote about how the western values becoming global values and it impact on Asian cultural values. For example, Sen says,

The issue of democracy also bearing on another cultural matter that has received some justified attention recently. This concerns the overwhelming power of Western culture and lifestyle in undermining traditional modes of living and social mores. For anyone concerned about the value of tradition and of indigenous cultural modes this is a serious threat (Sen 1999).

In addition, Sen said that when people claim about the Asian culture they usually refer to China, Korea and Japan. However, we cannot be narrow minded and generalize “ Asian values” based on these countries because Asian people have many diverse cultural backgrounds. For instance, “even the 2.8 million people of Singapore have vast variations of cultural and historical traditions. Indeed, Singapore has an admirable record in fostering intercommunity amity and friendly coexistence” (Sen 1999).

Also, he compared the Asian culture and the western culture. He said that when people refers to west, they usually meant by European and American. Many people claim that the early civilization, “ the fundamental of democracy “ found in Europe , but we cannot deny Asians had early civilization ,too such as “ Confucianism”(Sen 1999). In addition, it is common to find the idea of democracy in Buddhist teachings. However, in the modern society the power and influence of West stays strong ,”especially in cultural matter” and “ the threat to native cultures in the globalizing world of today is, to a considerable extent, inescapable” (Sen 1999).

In addition, Sen said that in order to contribute in global market people need a basic education of technological knowledge. He defined two issues in the globalization. First issue is many South Asian and African countries are lacking in this area and cannot have equal access to get involve into the global market. Second is many countries losing their old cultural way of life and adopting new way of life and eventually these discarded cultural items will be hard to recover.

Finally, he reminded us that it is very important to keep our cultural diversity and also we need to know that Asian values “ have been championed in the past of Asian countries….Indeed, in many ways they are similar to substantial variations that are often seen in the history of ideas in the West also” (Sen 1999).

In conclusion, based on my readings, the global sociology sampler, I just illustrated three main factors of globalization, the new technological advancement, the new social and political approach and its reflection in the native cultures. Many philosophers explained their view points about the globalization.

Although they discussed many different subject matters in regard of globalization all of them agreed that in the modern world our life way is changing through information technology.

Works Cited

Beck, Ulrich. 1999. “World Risk Society” in Social Theory: the Multicultural and
Classical Readings, edited by Charles Lemert. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Castells, Manuel. 1996. “ The Global Network” in Social Theory: the Multicultural and
Classical Readings, edited by Charles Lemert. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Hall, Stuart 1996 “The Global, the Local, and the Return of Ethnicity” in Social Theory:
Multicultural readings, edited by Charles Lemert. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Harvey, David. 1996. “The City in a Globalizing World” in Social Theory: the Multicultural and
Classical Readings, edited by Charles Lemert. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Havel, Vaclav. 1992. “The End of the Modern Era” in Social Theory: the Multicultural and
Classical Readings, edited by Charles Lemert. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Murray, David C. 2006. “Globalization: The Basic Principals of Leadership are Universal and
Timeless.” Advances in Global Leadership. Vol 4. Edited by William H. Mobley and Elizabeth Weldom. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Ltd.

Schirato, Tony and Jen Webb. 2003. Understanding Globalization. London, UK: SAGE
Publication Ltd.

Sen, Amartya. 1999. “Asian Value and the West’s Claims to Uniqueness” in Social Theory: the
Multicultural and Classical Readings, edited by Charles Lemert. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

  • Papers sound more academic and formal when one avoids speaking in first person. Also, it would read better if there was a space between every paragraph.
  • If you read this paper out loud to yourself after it is done, it will help you catch any mistakes but also see if the words flow nicely. When I write in another language I add one more step after that, and have a native speaker of that language who I trust read it out loud to me so that I can see if it sounds right or if my sentences are awkward.
  • There are some good concepts here but you might want to consider getting a little help from the writing center as it is a bit grammatically awkward, and that makes it hard to understand. For example “I furthered my education, learned the English and I read global sociology sampler theory”, would sound much better if it said something more like “To further my education, I learned English and then read about the sociology of globalization for this theory sampler”.

I don’t intend to be mean or make fun of you, but am hoping this is information will be helpful for you. The writing center on campus is a wonderful resource for Mills students; it is completely free, and located across the street from Founders.~Amy

Ariuna,
I thought your paper sounded very good, I find the concept of globalization both interesting and scary. I see the potential losses and gains in the realm of culture at the hands of homogenization. It makes me a little bit sad. on the other hand, a global community where people all feel that they share a commonality that does away with nationalistic and racial boundaries sounds utopic.
-Erika

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