In Germany, the Institut für Sozialforschung was founded in 1923 as an adjunct of the University of Frankfurt. It was the first Marxist oriented social research institute. In 1935 it too moved to escape Nazism with it scholars resettling in New York at Columbia. It was re-established in Frankfurt in 1953. The tradition in which these scholars work has come to be called "the Frankfurt School" and "Critical Theory," though neither phrase can be pinned down to indicate a specific position or framework. Figures associated with the Frankfurt School include Max Horkheimer, Theodor W. Adorno, Erich Fromm, Herbert Marcus, Walter Benjamin. The most influential contemporary "member" of the Frankfurt School is Jürgen Habermas. Has written widely about capitalism, democracy, law, and contemporary politics focusing on the possibility of critical rational discourse. Nice bit of background on critical theory influences of Frankfurt School HERE
Lukács, Georg. 1922. "The Irrational Chasm Between Subject and Object" (206-208)
Horkheimer, Max. 1932. "Notes on Science and the Crisis" (208-212)
Fromm, Erich. 1929. "Psychoanalysis and Sociology" (222-223)
Benjamin, Walter. 1936. "Art, War, and Fascism" (259-261)
Gramsci Intellectuals and Hegemony Antonio Gramsci, Intellectuals and Hegemony (263-265)
Althusser, Louis. 1968-9. "Ideology and the Ideological State Apparatuses, Doubts and Reservations" (321-324)
Horkheimer, Max and Theodor Adorno. 1944. "The Culture Industry as Deception" (325-329)
Habermas, Jürgen. 1968. "Emancipatory Knowledge" (386-7)
Habermas, Jürgen. 1970. "Social Analysis and Communicative Competence" (387-9)
Marcuse, Herbert. 1964. "Repressive Desublimation" (436-439)
VIDEO: Paul Fry Lecture on "The Frankfurt School of Critical Theory" in Introduction to Literary Theory at Yale.
Dahms, Harry F. 2008. Current Perspectives in Social Theory , Volume 25 : No Social Science without Critical Theory. Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. (Ebrary HM480 — .N6 2008eb)
Gottfried, Paul. 2005. Strange Death of Marxism : The European Left in the New Millennium. University of Missouri Press. (Ebrary HX238.5 — .G68 2005eb)
Claussen, Detlev and Rodney Livingstone. 2008. Theodor W. Adorno : One Last Genius. Harvard University Press. (Ebrary B3199.A34 — C5813 2008eb]
See introduction in Kellner, Douglas (ed.). 1998. Collected Papers of Herbert Marcuse : Technology, War and Fascism, Volume 1. Routledge. (Ebrary B945 — .M298 v. 1 1998eb)
Wiggershaus, Rolf. 1994. The Frankfurt School : its history, theories, and political significance. Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press. 301.01 W655f 1994.
Tar, Zoltán. 1977. The Frankfurt school : the critical theories of Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno. New York : Wiley 301 T176f.
Geuss, Raymond. 1981. The idea of a critical theory : Habermas and the Frankfurt school. Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press. 301 H114g 1981.
Jay, Martin. 1973. The dialectical imagination; a history of the Frankfurt School and the Institute of Social Research, 1923-1950. Boston, Little, Brown 300.7 J42d.
Feenberg, Andrew. 1986. Lukacs, Marx, and the sources of critical theory. New York : Oxford University Press. 335.4 F295L
Held, David. 1980. Introduction to critical theory : Horkheimer to Habermas Berkeley. University of California Press. 301 H474i.